Are all your storage adapters being detected in the host hardware inventory? can you go through command line and run the following commands to see what storage hardware you have available on your host?
First validate your host is detecting your storage adapters where you have the new nvme drive plugged in:
esxcli storage core adapter list
Then, if i remember correctly to get a list of all storage devices use:
With this we should be able to figure out if the ESXi can see the device at all or if maybe it can just see it but for some reason it wont interact with it. (Like unsupported type of drive for your storage controller. Ive seen this happen when people connect SAS drives on SATA controllers for example)
Before you do, have you tried installing the nvme driver package? Community NVMe Driver for ESXi. Or reinstalling the nvme package VMware nvme-pcie driver (you can find the vib file in your upgrade bundle or in the iso). You can figure if you are missing it by running esxcli software vib list | grep nvme.